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学习园地 - 专业四级学习小组

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    独立主格

    39 Rebekah 2012-12-18 22:02
    独立主格结构是一个独立主格的名词或代词(作为逻辑主格),加上一个分词、形容词、副词、不定式、介词短语。其作用相当于状语,多用来表示行为、方式或伴随的情况,有时也用来表示时间和条件。这种结构多用在书面语中。
    一、几种常见的独立主格结构形式
    1.名词(或代词)+现在分词(或过去分词)。如:
    1)The moon appearing,they decided to go on with theirjouney.
    2)Good-bye said,he went home.
    2.名词(或代词)+形容词。如:
    3)The weather(being)hot,we all went swimming.
    3.名词(或代词)+不定式。如:
    4)Some of the money to be paid by the thief, the police went away.
    4.名词(或代词)+介词短语。如:
    5)He climbed in,sword in hand.
    5.名词(或代词)+副词。如:
    6)The meeting(being)over, we left the room.
    with复合结构 独立主格结构
    它们都可以在句中作原因状语,伴随状况状语,条件状语,时间状语或结果状语用,一般也可以相互转换.虽然它们的语法功能和意义相同,但其结构形式和名称却不相同.
    with复合结构的模式是:
    with+名词/代词+分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语
    独立主格结构的模式是:
    主格名词/代词+分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语
    一,作时间状语
    1,With winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south.
    =Winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south.
    二,作原因状语
    1,With the weather terribly cold, we entered the room to warm ourselves.
    = The weather terribly cold, we entered the room to warm ourselves.
    2,With the key having been lost, she could not enter the room.
    = The key having been lost, she could not enter the room.
    三,作条件状语
    1,With time permitting, we'll visit the Summer Palace.
    = Time permitting, we'll visit the Summer Palace.
    2,With the car going wrong, we'll have to stop at the foot of the mountain.
    = The car going wrong, we'll have to stop at the foot of the mountain.
    四,作伴随状语
    1,The mother was cleaning the house with her baby playing on the bed.
    =The mother was cleaning the house, her baby playing on the bed.
    2,Last night I followed him, with a sword in my hand.
    = Last night I followed him , sword in hand.
    无论with复合结构还是独立主格结构,都不可有动词的谓语形式充当其中的逻辑谓语.如下例中的was就必须去掉:
    He sat at the desk reading with a pen was in his right hand.
    with复合结构可以作后置定语修饰名词,而独立主格结构则不可作后置定语修饰名词.
    Soon she arrived at a park with grass green and flowers in blossom.
    = Soon she arrived at a park whose grass was green and whose flowers were in blossom.
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